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Prosecution of the five remaining defendants—Kevin Richardson, Antron McCray, Raymond Santana, Korey Wise, and Yusef Salaam—in the rape and assault case was based primarily on confessions which they had made after lengthy police interrogations.
None of the defendants had legal counsel during questioning. Many consider the interrogation techniques to have been coercive and they have been subject to wide criticism.
Within weeks, they each withdrew their confessions, pleaded not guilty, and refused plea deals on the rape and assault charges.
None of the suspects' DNA matched the DNA collected from the crime scene: two semen samples that both belonged to one unidentified man.
No substantive physical evidence connected any of the five teenagers to the rape scene, but each was convicted in of related assault and other charges.
Subsequently, known as the Central Park Five , they received sentences ranging from 5 to 15 years. Four of the defendants appealed their convictions, but these were affirmed by appellate courts.
The four juvenile defendants served 6—7 years each; the year-old was tried and sentenced as an adult and served 13 years in an adult prison.
The five other defendants, indicted for assaults of other victims, pleaded guilty to reduced charges and received less severe sentences.
Late in , inmate Matias Reyes, a convicted murderer and serial rapist serving a years-to-life prison sentence for crimes he'd confessed to concurrent to the Central Park attack,  informed a corrections officer that he had raped Meili.
Reyes' confession occurred after the statute of limitations had passed and the Central Park Five had already served their sentences. They'd previously been in an altercation.
In , Robert Morgenthau , District Attorney for New York County , had his office conduct an investigation into the innocence of the defendants.
This led to the prosecutor's office making a written recommendation to the State Supreme Court that the convictions, related to the rape and assault of Meili, be vacated.
The court vacated their convictions in , and New York city withdrew all charges against the men. She believes that her attack was not the result of a single person.
In , the five men sued the City of New York for malicious prosecution , racial discrimination , and emotional distress. Under Mayor Michael Bloomberg ,  the City had refused to settle the lawsuits.
At least some of the group traveled further south to the area around the reservoir, where four men jogging were attacked by several youths.
Among the victims was John Loughlin, a year-old schoolteacher, who was severely beaten and robbed between and She had been pulled to the north some feet off the path known as the nd Street Crossing; the path of her feet dragged through the grass was marked so clearly that it could be photographed.
It was 18" wide. There was no evidence in the grass of footprints of multiple perpetrators. She was brutally beaten, suffering major blood loss and skull fractures; she was later revealed to have been raped.
After her discovery, the police increased the intensity of their effort to identify suspects in this attack and took more teenagers into custody. The jogger was not identified for about 24 hours, and it took days for the police to retrace her movements of that night.
By the time of the trial of the first three suspects in June , The New York Times characterized the attack on the jogger as "one of the most widely publicized crimes of the s".
She looked like she was tortured. Meili was comatose for 12 days. She suffered severe hypothermia , severe brain damage, severe hemorrhagic shock , loss of 75—80 percent of her blood, and internal bleeding.
The initial medical prognosis was that Meili would die of her injuries. Alternatively, doctors thought that she might remain in a permanent coma due to her injuries.
She came out of her coma after 12 days. She was then treated for seven weeks in Metropolitan Hospital in East Harlem.
When Meili first emerged from her coma, she was unable to talk, read, or walk. As a result of the severe trauma, she had no memory of the attack or any events up to an hour before the assault, nor of the six weeks following the attack.
At a time of concern about crime in general in the city, which was suffering high rates of assaults, rapes, and homicides, these attacks provoked great outrage, particularly the brutal rape of the female jogger.
It took place in the public park that is "mythologized as the city's verdant, democratic refuge". Clair, Pennsylvania , a suburb of Pittsburgh.
Clair High School , graduating in At the time of the attack, she was 28 years old. In most media accounts of the incident at that time, Meili was simply referred to as the "Central Park Jogger", but two local TV stations violated the media policy of not publicly identifying the victims of sex crimes and released her name in the days immediately following the attack.
As identified by the Morgenthau report and The New York Times in a review of the case, these were:  . The remaining victims were attacked by members of the large group while jogging near the reservoir:.
Three of the victims were black or Hispanic, like most of the suspects, complicating any narrative to attribute attacks solely to racial factors.
Through the night, they apprehended about 20 teenagers. Her discovery increased the urgency of police efforts to apprehend suspects.
Antron McCray, 15; Yusef Salaam, 15; and Korey Wise then known as Kharey Wise , 16, were brought in for questioning later that day April 20 , after having been identified by other youths in the large group as participants in or present at some of the attacks on other victims.
The police arrested additional suspects over 48 hours after the night of April 19 and interrogated numerous others. Among these was Clarence Thomas, 14, who was arrested on April 21, , on charges related to the rape of the female jogger.
After further investigation, he was never indicted, and all charges were dismissed against him on October 31, The five juveniles who later became known as the Central Park Five were interrogated for at least seven hours each before the detectives attempted to record their statements as videotaped confessions.
Santana, McCray, and Richardson made video statements in the presence of parents. He named others of the group by first names in the group attacks on other persons but denied any knowledge of the female jogger.
When taken into custody, Salaam told the police he was 16 years old and showed them identification to that effect. If a suspect had reached 16 years of age, his parents or guardians no longer had a right to accompany him during police questioning, or to refuse to permit him to answer any questions.
He neither made a videotape nor signed the earlier written statement, but the court ruled to accept it as evidence before his trial.
Salaam allegedly made verbal admissions to the police. He confessed to being present at the rape only after the detective falsely told him that fingerprints had been found on the victim's clothing and if his matched, he would be charged with rape.
On April 21, senior police investigators held a press conference to announce having apprehended about 20 suspects in the attacks of a total of nine people in Central Park two nights before and began to offer their theory of the attack and rape of the female jogger.
Her name was withheld as a victim of a sex crime. The police said up to 12 youths were believed to have attacked the jogger. The main suspects were a sub-group [ citation needed ] within the loose gang of 30 to 32 teenagers who had assaulted strangers in the park as part of an activity that the police said the teenagers referred to as "wilding".
New York City senior detectives said the term was used by the suspects when describing their actions to police. This account of the term "wilding" was soon disputed by investigative reporter Barry Michael Cooper , who said that it originated in a police detective's misunderstanding of the suspects' use of the phrase "doing the wild thing", lyrics from rapper Tone Loc 's hit song " Wild Thing ".
Normal police procedures stipulated that the names of criminal suspects under the age of 16 were to be withheld from the media and the public.
But this policy was ignored when the names of the arrested juveniles were released to the press before any of them had been formally arraigned or indicted.
By that time, more information had been published about the primary suspects in the rape, who did not seem to satisfy typical profiles of perpetrators.
Common factors had been ruled out. Reporters had found that some came from stable, financially secure families; police had ruled out drugs or major robbery, and most had no criminal records.
On April 26, , The New York Times published a cautionary editorial against the use of labels and questioning why such "well-adjusted youngsters" could have committed such a "savage" crime.
After the major media's decisions to print the names, photos, and addresses of the juvenile suspects, they and their families received serious threats.
Other residents living at the Schomburg Plaza, where four suspects lived, were also threatened. Because of this, editors of The City Sun and the Amsterdam News chose to use Meili's name in their continuing coverage of the events.
Reverend Calvin O. Butts of the Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem , who came to support the five suspects, said to The New York Times, "The first thing you do in the United States of America when a white woman is raped is round up a bunch of black youths, and I think that's what happened here.
On May 1, , Donald Trump , then a real estate magnate, called for the return of the death penalty in full-page advertisements published in all four of the city's major newspapers.
Trump said he wanted the "criminals of every age" who were accused of beating and raping a jogger in Central Park 12 days earlier "to be afraid".
I do not think so. I want to hate these muggers and murderers. They should be forced to suffer Yes, Mayor Koch, I want to hate these murderers and I always will.
How can our great society tolerate the continued brutalization of its citizens by crazed misfits? According to defendant Yusef Salaam, quoted in a February article in The Guardian , Trump "was the fire starter" in , as "common citizens were being manipulated and swayed into believing that we were guilty.
Six youths were indicted with attempted murder and other charges in the attack on and rape of the female jogger, and additional charges related to the attack of David Lewis, the attack and robbery of John Loughlin, and riot:  .
Each of the youths pleaded "Not guilty. The two other youths under 16 were returned to a juvenile facility to be held there until trial.
Four of the six youths who were indicted for the rape lived at the Schomburg Plaza, Fifth Avenue, at the northeast corner of Central Park near th Street; two lived further north of there.
The ones at Schomburg included friends Salaam and Wise, who lived in the northwest tower,   and Kevin Richardson and Steve Lopez who lived elsewhere in the complex.
They had seen each other in the neighborhood. Designed for families, the complex was built in and was partially subsidized by the city and federal government; it had households, in apartments ranging in size from studios to five bedrooms.
Four of the five had confessed to police about other attacks in the park in other areas on the night of April 19, including the assault and robbery of John Loughlin, to which they said they were witnesses or participants.
Salaam's unsigned statement also covered the range of actions and crimes. Each of the suspects had made different errors in time and place about the jogger attack in their confessions, with most placing it near the reservoir.
Their confessions varied as to who they identified as having participated in the rape, including naming several youths who were never charged.
Although four suspects all except Salaam confessed on videotape in the presence of a parent or guardian who had generally not been present during the interrogations , each of the four retracted his statement within weeks.
Together they claimed that they had been intimidated, lied to, and coerced by police into making false confessions. While the confessions were videotaped, the hours of interrogation that preceded the confessions were not.
Numerous pretrial hearings were conducted by Judge Thomas B. Galligan of the State Supreme Court of Manhattan, who had been assigned the case. Since judges were generally assigned by lottery,  but the court administrator assigned him to this case.
Analysis indicated that none of the suspects' DNA matched either of the two DNA samples collected from the crime scene from the jogger's cervix and running sock , but results were reported as "inconclusive" by the police.
In the six suspects incl. Steve Lopez indicted in the attack on the female jogger and other crimes were scheduled for trial. The prosecution arranged to try the six defendants in the Meili case in two separate groups.
This enabled them to control the order in which certain evidence would be introduced to the court.
Lopez was scheduled to be tried in January , after the two other groups of defendants in the rape and assault case.
He had denied any knowledge of the rape in his videotaped confession, but was implicated by other defendants' statements.
Like the five others, he was also indicted on charges related to the attack and robbery of Loughlin. Each of the teenagers had his own defense counsel.
None of the three defense attorneys cross-examined her. The jury deliberated for 10 days before rendering its verdict on August Each of the three youths was acquitted of attempted murder, but convicted of assault and rape of the female jogger, and convicted of assault and robbery of John Loughlin, a male jogger who was badly beaten that night in Central Park.
Galligan to the maximum allowed for juveniles, 5—10 years each in a youth correctional facility. The second trial, of Kevin Richardson and Korey Wise, began October 22,  and also lasted about two months, ending in December.
Assistant District Attorney Elizabeth Lederer had a lengthy opening statement, and Wise broke down at the defense table after it, weeping and shouting that she had lied.
He was removed temporarily from the courtroom. Richardson's defense counsel made a motion for a mistrial, because of the potential effect on the jury, but the judge rejected it.
The trial proceeded. The defense attorneys noted that each youth had limited intellectual ability and said that neither was capable of preparing the written statements or videotaped confessions submitted by the prosecution as evidence.
Meili testified again at this trial; again, her name was not given in court. This time one of the defense counsels, Wise's lawyer, cross-examined her.
She later said in an interview on Oprah : "I'll tell you what—I didn't feel wonderful about the boys' defense attorneys, especially the one who cross-examined me.
He was right in front of my face and, in essence, calling me a slut by asking questions like 'When's the last time you had sex with your boyfriend?
Richardson was the only one of the five defendants to be convicted of attempted murder of Meili, in addition to sodomy and assault of her, and robbery and riot in the attack on John Loughlin, another jogger in the park.
Korey Wise, 16 years old at the time of the crime, was acquitted of rape and attempted murder. Jesus is going to get you. You made this up. Jurors who agreed to interviews after the trials said that they were not convinced by the youths' confessions, but were impressed by the physical evidence introduced by the prosecutors: semen, grass, dirt, and two hairs described as "consistent with" the victim's hair  : 6 that were recovered from Richardson's underpants.
According to an FBI expert who gave evidence at the trial, all five defendants could be excluded as being the man who had left the semen samples inside Meili and on a sock.
After the guilty verdicts, the judge sentenced the defendants to the maximum for the charges and their ages. The four youths under 16 were sentenced to 5—10 years each.
They had been held in a juvenile facility since their arrest. Wise at 16 was tried and sentenced as an adult because of the nature of the violent felony charges against him, under the Juvenile Offender Law of Four of the five youths appealed their convictions in the rape case the following year, but Santana did not appeal.
Each of the convictions was upheld. On appeal, Salaam's attorneys charged that he had been held by police without access to parents or guardians.
The majority appellate court decision upheld his conviction, noting that Salaam had initially lied to police about his age, claiming to be 16 and backing up his claim with a forged transit pass that, falsely, indicated that he was This was the age at which a suspect could be questioned without a parent or guardian present.
When Salaam informed police of his true age, they allowed his mother entry to the interrogation room. In a Guardian article, defense counsel William Warren was reported saying that he thought Trump's ads in had played a role in securing conviction by the juries, saying that "he poisoned the minds of many people who lived in New York City and who, rightfully, had a natural affinity for the victim.
In a New York Review of Books article, which was the first mainstream piece arguing that the Five's convictions had been wrongful, Joan Didion suggested the verdicts stemmed from a cultural crisis, writing that "So fixed were the emotions provoked by this case that the idea that there could have been, for even one juror, even a moment's doubt in the state's case… seemed, to many in the city, bewildering, almost unthinkable: the attack on the jogger had by then passed into narrative, and the narrative was Although Assistant District Attorney Elizabeth Lederer had said she would not accept a plea deal for any of the defendants indicted in the rape case, she did come to agreement with Steve Lopez and his attorney in the court on January 30, , prior to a new jury being selected for his trial.
He was considered the final of the six defendants in the jogger trial. Because Lopez had not acknowledged participating at all in the rape in his statement to police, and prosecution witnesses had withdrawn from testifying, based on what they said was fear of self-recrimination or "fear of their own safety", according to Lederer, the prosecution's case was extremely weak.
Because Lopez was younger than 16 at the time of the crime, he was sentenced to serve his time in a juvenile facility.
The four youngest of the five convicted defendants each served between six and seven years in juvenile facilities.
Richardson, Salaam, and Santana attended classes. Each earned a GED and also completed an associate degree while there. Richardson and Salaam were released in He was part of an Islamic community and served as a spiritual leader at his youth facility, but talked about how important his mother's visits had been.
He was held at a juvenile facility in upstate New York about five miles from the Canadian border and hours from New York City, but she came to see him three times a week.
Wise had to serve all of his time in adult prison, and encountered so much personal violence that he asked to stay in isolation for extended periods.
He was held at four different prisons, having asked for transfers in the hope of improving his situation. Through this period, each of the five continued to maintain their innocence in the rape and attack of Meili, including at hearings before parole boards.
While they acknowledged "witnessing or participating in other wrongdoing" in the park, they each maintained innocence in the attack of Meili.
In , convicted serial rapist and murderer Matias Reyes was serving a life sentence in New York state. He had never been identified as a suspect in the Central Park attack on Meili, although he had been at large at the time.
Reyes was believed to have raped another woman in the same area of the park during the day on April 17, two days before the attack on Meili.
Initially the Meili case was investigated as a homicide, and the April 17 rape was investigated as a rape assault, which resulted in a lack of comparison of the DNA recovered in the two cases.
He was 17 years old at the time of the assault and said that he had committed it alone. Based on interviews and other evidence, the team believed that Reyes had acted alone: The rape appeared to have taken place in the North Woods area after the main body of the thirty teenagers had moved well to the south, and the timeline reconstruction of events made it unlikely that he was joined by any of the defendants.
In addition, Reyes was not known to have been associated with any of the six indicted defendants. He lived at nd Street, in what locals considered another neighborhood.
None of the six defendants in the rape mentioned him by name in association with the rape. Reyes was not prosecuted for the rape of Meili because the statute of limitations had passed.
In a plea deal, he pleaded guilty to the top counts in each of the five cases on November 1, DNA analysis of the strands of hair found on the clothing of two of the defendants, conducted with advanced technology not available at the time of their trial, established that the hair did not belong to the victim, despite what the prosecution had testified to at trial.
Based on the newly discovered evidence, each of the five men who had been convicted of charges related to the rape of Meili filed motions to have their convictions set aside and for the court "to grant whatever further relief may be just and proper.
As a result of his team's review, Reyes's confession, and DNA testing that confirmed he was the sole source of semen, District Attorney Robert Morgenthau recommended vacating the convictions of the five defendants who had been convicted and sentenced to prison.
During the re-investigation, the DA's office questioned the veracity of their confessions, because of their many inconsistencies and their lack of correspondence to established facts in the case.
Morgenthau's office wrote:. A comparison of the statements reveals troubling discrepancies. The accounts given by the five defendants differed from one another on the specific details of virtually every major aspect of the crime—who initiated the attack, who knocked the victim down, who undressed her, who struck her, who held her, who raped her, what weapons were used in the course of the assault, and when in the sequence of events the attack took place.
In many other respects the defendants' statements were not corroborated by, consistent with, or explanatory of objective, independent evidence.
And some of what they said was simply contrary to established fact. In addition to the confessions, the report noted that a "reconstruction of the events in the park has bared a significant conflict, one that was hinted at but not explored in depth at the trials: at the time the jogger was believed to have been attacked, the teenagers were said to be involved—either as spectators or participants—in muggings elsewhere in the park.
The report also noted: "Ultimately, there proved to be no physical or forensic evidence recovered at the scene or from the person or effects of the victim which connected the defendants to the attack on the jogger, or could establish how many perpetrators participated.
In light of the "extraordinary circumstances" of the case, Morgenthau recommended that the court also vacate the convictions for the other crimes that night, such as robbery or assault, to which the defendants had confessed.
His rationale was that the defendants' confessions to the other crimes were made at the same time and in the same statements as those related to the attack on Meili.
Had the newly discovered evidence been available at the original trials, it might have made the juries question whether any part of the defendants' confessions was trustworthy.
At the time and later, Morgenthau's recommendation to vacate the convictions was strongly opposed by Linda Fairstein , who had directed the original prosecution; as well as by lead detectives on the case, and some other members of the police department.
Turned out to be misplaced. But we rectified it. Tejada on December 19, As Morgenthau recommended, Tejada's order vacated the convictions for all the crimes of which the defendants had been convicted.
This also enabled them being removed from New York State's sex offender registry. In addition to having had difficulty getting employment or renting housing, as registered offenders, they had been required to report to authorities in person every three months.
Santana remained in jail to complete a different sentence, having been convicted of an unrelated later crime.
Lawyers for the five defendants repeated their assessment that Trump's advertisements in had inflamed public opinion about the case. After Reyes confessed to the crime and said he acted alone, defense counselor Michael W.
Warren said, "I think Donald Trump at the very least owes a real apology to this community and to the young men and their families. Following these events, in , New York City Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly commissioned a panel to review the case, "To determine whether the new evidence [from the Reyes affidavit and related evidence, and Morgenthau's investigation] indicated that police supervisors or officers acted improperly or incorrectly, and to determine whether police policy or procedures needed to be changed as a result of the Central Park jogger case.
Armstrong , the former chief counsel to the Knapp Commission ; and Jules Martin, a former police officer and now New York University Vice President; as well as Stephen Hammerman, deputy police commissioner for legal affairs.
In its January Armstrong Report, the panel "did not dispute the legal necessity of setting aside the convictions of the five defendants based on the new DNA evidence that Mr.
Reyes had raped the jogger. The report concluded that the five men whose convictions had been vacated had "most likely" participated in the beating and rape of the jogger and that the "most likely scenario" was that "both the defendants and Reyes assaulted her, perhaps successively.
Despite the analysis conducted by the District Attorney's Office, New York City detectives supported the Armstrong Report by the police department.
The panel said there had been "no misconduct in the investigation of the Central Park jogger case.
We believe the inconsistencies contained in the various statements were not such as to destroy their reliability. On the other hand, there was a general consistency that ran through the defendants' descriptions of the attack on the female jogger: she was knocked down on the road, dragged into the woods, hit and molested by several defendants, sexually abused by some while others held her arms and legs, and left semiconscious in a state of undress.
The other two defendants later joined the lawsuit. Under Mayor Michael Bloomberg administration,  the City refused to pursue a settlement for the lawsuits based on a conclusion that the defendants had had a fair trial.
Speaking at a news conference in , Bloomberg spoke of his confidence regarding the actions of the police department.
If we see any reason to think that we acted inappropriately, [Police] Commissioner Kelly will certainly take appropriate measures.
But so far we believe that the N. In , Celeste Koeleveld, then New York City's Executive Assistant Corporation Counsel for Public Safety, gave a public statement on behalf of the city in after receiving public criticism from Councilman Charles Barron for failing to resolve the lawsuits:  .
Nothing unearthed since the trials, including Matias Reyes's connection to the attack on the jogger, changes that fact.
At a press conference in , de Blasio made a public statement about the settlements. I think that the way we've proceeded was [with] an understanding that that had to be rectified, in a way that made sense and a way that was mindful and careful, but I think we're on the right track And I think the moral issue is quite clear and obviously was made clear by the court decisions in recent years.
The city did not admit to any wrongdoing in the settlement. Who's that? Never heard of him! Tell me: what the hell is a Purple Man?!
I'm dripping sweat, turn up the fan I hate this place, we should burn it, man Or maybe a raise? Cuz I think I've earned it, man!
StormSeiker Blog. Enviar por e-mail BlogThis! Compartilhar no Twitter Compartilhar no Facebook. Unknown 12 de abril de Unknown 4 de outubro de Carregar mais Chat Online.