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Another obsolete method of defeating slot machines was to use a light source to confuse the optical sensor used to count coins during payout.
Modern slot machines are controlled by EPROM computer chips and, in large casinos, coin acceptors have become obsolete in favor of bill acceptors.
These machines and their bill acceptors are designed with advanced anti-cheating and anti-counterfeiting measures and are difficult to defraud.
Early computerized slot machines were sometimes defrauded through the use of cheating devices, such as the "slider" or "monkey paw".
Computerized slot machines are fully deterministic and thus outcomes can be sometimes successfully predicted. Malfunctioning electronic slot machines are capable of indicating jackpot winnings far in excess of those advertised.
In the United States, the public and private availability of slot machines is highly regulated by state governments. Many states have established gaming control boards to regulate the possession and use of slot machines and other form of gaming.
Nevada is the only state that has no significant restrictions against slot machines both for public and private use.
In New Jersey , slot machines are only allowed in hotel casinos operated in Atlantic City. Several states Indiana , Louisiana and Missouri allow slot machines as well as any casino-style gambling only on licensed riverboats or permanently anchored barges.
Since Hurricane Katrina , Mississippi has removed the requirement that casinos on the Gulf Coast operate on barges and now allows them on land along the shoreline.
Delaware allows slot machines at three horse tracks; they are regulated by the state lottery commission.
In Wisconsin, bars and taverns are allowed to have up to five machines. These machines usually allow a player to either take a payout, or gamble it on a double-or-nothing "side game".
The territory of Puerto Rico places significant restrictions on slot machine ownership, but the law is widely flouted and slot machines are common in bars and coffeeshops.
In regards to tribal casinos located on Native American reservations , slot machines played against the house and operating independently from a centralized computer system are classified as "Class III" gaming by the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act IGRA , and sometimes promoted as "Vegas-style" slot machines.
As a workaround, some casinos may operate slot machines as "Class II" games—a category that includes games where players play exclusively against at least one other opponent and not the house, such as bingo or any related games such as pull-tabs.
In these cases, the reels are an entertainment display with a pre-determined outcome based on a centralized game played against other players.
Some historical race wagering terminals operate in a similar manner, with the machines using slots as an entertainment display for outcomes paid using the parimutuel betting system, based on results of randomly-selected, previously-held horse races with the player able to view selected details about the race and adjust their picks before playing the credit, or otherwise use an auto-bet system.
Conversely, in Connecticut , Hawaii , Nebraska , South Carolina , and Tennessee , private ownership of any slot machine is completely prohibited. The remaining states allow slot machines of a certain age typically 25—30 years or slot machines manufactured before a specific date.
For a detailed list of state-by-state regulations on private slot machine ownership, see U. In essence, the term "lottery scheme" used in the code means slot machines, bingo and table games normally associated with a casino.
These fall under the jurisdiction of the province or territory without reference to the federal government; in practice, all Canadian provinces operate gaming boards that oversee lotteries, casinos and video lottery terminals under their jurisdiction.
OLG piloted a classification system for slot machines at the Grand River Raceway developed by University of Waterloo professor Kevin Harrigan, as part of its PlaySmart initiative for responsible gambling.
Inspired by nutrition labels on foods, they displayed metrics such as volatility and frequency of payouts. In Australia "Poker Machines" or "pokies"  are officially termed "gaming machines".
In Australia, gaming machines are a matter for state governments, so laws vary between states. Gaming machines are found in casinos approximately one in each major city , pubs and clubs in some states usually sports, social, or RSL clubs.
The first Australian state to legalize this style of gambling was New South Wales , when in they were made legal in all registered clubs in the state.
There are suggestions that the proliferation of poker machines has led to increased levels of problem gambling ; however, the precise nature of this link is still open to research.
Australia ranks 8th in total number of gaming machines after Japan, U. This primarily is because gaming machines have been legal in the state of New South Wales since ; over time, the number of machines has grown to 97, at December , including the Australian Capital Territory.
By way of comparison, the U. State of Nevada, which legalised gaming including slots several decades before N.
This new law also banned machines with an automatic play option. All gaming machines in Victoria have an information screen accessible to the user by pressing the "i key" button, showing the game rules, paytable, return to player percentage, and the top and bottom five combinations with their odds.
These combinations are stated to be played on a minimum bet usually 1 credit per line, with 1 line or reel played, although some newer machines do not have an option to play 1 line; some machines may only allow maximum lines to be played , excluding feature wins.
Western Australia has the most restrictive regulations on electronic gaming machines in general, with the Crown Perth casino resort being the only venue allowed to operate them,  and banning slot machines with spinning reels entirely.
This policy had an extensive political history, reaffirmed by the Royal Commission into Gambling: . Poker machine playing is a mindless, repetitive and insidious form of gambling which has many undesirable features.
It requires no thought, no skill or social contact. The odds are never about winning. Watching people playing the machines over long periods of time, the impressionistic evidence at least is that they are addictive to many people.
Historically poker machines have been banned from Western Australia and we consider that, in the public interest, they should stay banned.
While Western Australian gaming machines are similar to the other states', they do not have spinning reels. Therefore different animations are used in place of the spinning reels in order to display each game result.
Independent candidate Andrew Wilkie , an anti-pokies campaigner, was elected to the Australian House of Representatives seat of Denison at the federal election.
Wilkie was one of four crossbenchers who supported the Gillard Labor government following the hung parliament result.
Wilkie immediately began forging ties with Xenophon as soon as it was apparent that he was elected. During the Covid pandemic of , every establishment in the country that facilitated poker machines was shut down, in an attempt to curb the spread of the virus.
Bringing Australia's usage of poker machines effectively to zero. In Russia, "slot clubs" appeared quite late, only in Before , slot machines were only in casinos and small shops, but later slot clubs began appearing all over the country.
The most popular and numerous were "Vulcan " and "Taj Mahal". Since when gambling establishments were banned, almost all slot clubs disappeared and are found only in a specially authorized gambling zones.
Slot machines are covered by the Gambling Act , which superseded the Gaming Act Slot machines in the U.
Casinos built under the provisions of the Act are allowed to house either up to twenty machines of categories B—D or any number of C—D machines.
As defined by the Act, large casinos can have a maximum of one hundred and fifty machines in any combination of categories B—D subject to a machine-to-table ratio of ; small casinos can have a maximum of eighty machines in any combination of categories B—D subject to a machine-to-table ratio of Category A games were defined in preparation for the planned " Super Casinos ".
Despite a lengthy bidding process with Manchester being chosen as the single planned location, the development was cancelled soon after Gordon Brown became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
As a result, there are no lawful Category A games in the U. Category B games are divided into subcategories. The differences between B1, B3 and B4 games are mainly the stake and prizes as defined in the above table.
Category B2 games — Fixed odds betting terminals FOBTs — have quite different stake and prize rules: FOBTs are mainly found in licensed betting shops , or bookmakers, usually in the form of electronic roulette.
The games are based on a random number generator ; thus each game's probability of getting the jackpot is independent of any other game: probabilities are all equal.
If a pseudorandom number generator is used instead of a truly random one, probabilities are not independent since each number is determined at least in part by the one generated before it.
Category C games are often referred to as fruit machines , one-armed bandits and AWP amusement with prize. Fruit machines are commonly found in pubs , clubs , and arcades.
Machines commonly have three but can be found with four or five reels, each with 16—24 symbols printed around them. The reels are spun each play, from which the appearance of particular combinations of symbols result in payment of their associated winnings by the machine or alternatively initiation of a subgame.
These games often have many extra features, trails and subgames with opportunities to win money; usually more than can be won from just the payouts on the reel combinations.
Fruit machines in the U. It is known for machines to pay out multiple jackpots, one after the other this is known as a streak or rave but each jackpot requires a new game to be played so as not to violate the law about the maximum payout on a single play.
Typically this involves the player only pressing the Start button for which a single credit is taken, regardless of whether this causes the reels to spin or not.
Slot machines are a fairly new phenomenon and they can be found mostly in pachinko parlors and the adult sections of amusement arcades , known as game centers.
The machines are regulated with integrated circuits , and have six different levels changing the odds of a Japanese slot machines are "beatable".
Parlor operators naturally set most machines to simply collect money, but intentionally place a few paying machines on the floor so that there will be at least someone winning, [ citation needed ] encouraging players on the losing machines to keep gambling, using the psychology of the gambler's fallacy.
For example, there must be three reels. All reels must be accompanied by buttons which allow players to manually stop them, reels may not spin faster than 80 RPM, and reels must stop within 0.
In practice, this means that machines cannot let reels slip more than 4 symbols. Other rules include a 15 coin payout cap, a 50 credit cap on machines, a 3 coin maximum bet, and other such regulations.
Although a 15 coin payout may seem quite low, regulations allow "Big Bonus" c. While the machine is in bonus mode, the player is entertained with special winning scenes on the LCD display, and energizing music is heard, payout after payout.
On many machines, when enough money to afford a bonus is taken in, the bonus is not immediately awarded.
Typically the game merely stops making the reels slip off the bonus symbols for a few games. If the player fails to hit the bonus during these "standby games", it is added to the "stock" for later collection.
Many current games, after finishing a bonus round, set the probability to release additional stock gained from earlier players failing to get a bonus last time the machine stopped making the reels slip for a bit very high for the first few games.
As a result, a lucky player may get to play several bonus rounds in a row a "renchan" , making payouts of 5, or even 10, coins possible.
The lure of "stock" waiting in the machine, and the possibility of "renchan" tease the gambler to keep feeding the machine.
This is called being a " hyena ". They are easy to recognize, roaming the aisles for a "kamo" " sucker " in English to leave his machine.
Many people may be gambling more than they can afford , and the big payouts also lure unsavory "hyena" types into the gambling halls. To address these social issues, a new regulation Version 5.
Moreover, all pachisuro machines must be re-evaluated for regulation compliance every three years. Version 4. Natasha Dow Schüll, associate professor in New York University 's Department of Media, Culture, and Communication, uses the term "machine zone" to describe the state of immersion that users of slot machines experience during gambling, in which they lose a sense of time, space, bodily awareness, and monetary value.
Mike Dixon, PhD, professor of psychology at the University of Waterloo ,  studies the relationship between slot players and slot machines.
Slot players were observed experiencing heightened arousal from the sensory stimulus coming from the machines. They "sought to show that these 'losses disguised as wins' LDWs would be as arousing as wins, and more arousing than regular losses.
Psychologists Robert Breen and Marc Zimmerman   found that players of video slot machines reach a debilitating level of involvement with gambling three times as rapidly as those who play traditional casino games, even if they have gambled regularly on other forms of gambling in the past without a problem.
Eye tracking research in local bookkeepers offices in the UK suggested that, in slots games, the slot-reels dominated players' visual attention and problem gamblers looked more frequently at amount-won messages than those without gambling problems.
The 60 Minutes report "Slot Machines: The Big Gamble"  focused on the link between slot machines and gambling addiction.
Skill stop buttons predated the Bally electromechanical slot machines of the s and 70s. They appeared on mechanical slot machines manufactured by Mills Novelty Co.
These machines had modified reel-stop arms, which allowed them to be released from the timing bar, earlier than in a normal play, simply by pressing the buttons on the front of the machine, located between each reel.
These enabled the player to stop each reel, allowing a degree of "skill" so as to satisfy the New Jersey gaming laws of the day which required that players were able to control the game in some way.
The original conversion was applied to approximately 50 late-model Bally slot machines. Because the typical machine stopped the reels automatically in less than 10 seconds, weights were added to the mechanical timers to prolong the automatic stopping of the reels.
By the time the New Jersey Alcoholic Beverages Commission ABC had approved the conversion for use in New Jersey arcades, the word was out and every other distributor began adding skill stops.
The machines were a huge hit on the Jersey Shore and the remaining unconverted Bally machines were destroyed as they had become instantly obsolete.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Casino gambling machine. For the album, see One-Armed Bandit album. For the band, see Slot Machine band.
For other uses, see Fruit machine disambiguation. For other uses, see Pokey disambiguation. Main article: Pay table.
The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new section, as appropriate.
April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: Pachinko. Taylor and Francis. Retrieved 17 October The Atlantic Monthly Group.
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Retrieved 10 July Casinos would be out of business if they paid that out every time. It is a percentage that is gathered over a period of thousands of game sessions.
If the sign says "up to" a certain percentage, then the casino legally only has to set a few machines at that percentage, so the trick is finding them.
Always play the max bet available to get the highest jackpot possible. Machines that are played at a higher denomination, like a dollar or five-dollar machine will generally have higher payouts than a penny or nickel machine.
Progressive machines have large jackpots, but do not pay out very often. Three-reel machines that line up on one line have a record of higher payouts.
Every slot machine operates with a Random Number Generator R. G that is constantly generating different number combination's even when not played.
The trick is pushing the play button at the exact moment the jackpot numbers are being generated, which is completely left to luck.
There is no such thing as "a machine that is due to hit," a machine can go for days without hitting and then in 1 day hit twice.
The average three-reel machine has a 1 in 27, chance of hitting big. You can use them to offset any winnings when reporting and filing your taxes.
Make a decision on the amount you are going to spend before you enter, and stick with it. Decide how many rolls you will sit through before it hits, if eight or ten go by and no hit, move to another machine.
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Slide the card in the special reader slot in the machine. Use the card in every slot machine you play. It will gather points that you can use for free hotel rooms, meals, shopping and even give you money back.
Find the highest payout machines. Casinos will put machines that payout a lot in easy to see places, where you enter or stand in line for dinner, near cashiers' cages, check in, at the beginning of a row of machines.
They will not be next to the lines or any place a customer is forced to be idle. They put machines in these areas to occupy you while you wait, and they rarely pay out.
Ask an employee working at the casino where the machines are with the highest payouts. They are required by law to help you with this.
You can also look for signs that show a high percentage of payouts. Gambling machines are set at different percentages, the average is 95 percent, which means that over a period of time the house machine will pay out 95 percent of a dollar and the casino will get 5 percent.
This sounds like you should never lose more than 5 percent of your money, not true. Casinos would be out of business if they paid that out every time.
It is a percentage that is gathered over a period of thousands of game sessions. If the sign says "up to" a certain percentage, then the casino legally only has to set a few machines at that percentage, so the trick is finding them.
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However, the mechanics of early machines have been superseded by random number generators , and most are now operated using buttons and touchscreens.
Slot machines include one or more currency detectors that validate the form of payment, whether coin, cash, voucher, or token. The machine pays out according to the pattern of symbols displayed when the reels stop "spinning".
Digital technology has resulted in variations on the original slot machine concept. As the player is essentially playing a video game , manufacturers are able to offer more interactive elements, such as advanced bonus rounds and more varied video graphics.
The "slot machine" term derives from the slots on the machine for inserting and retrieving coins. Sittman and Pitt of Brooklyn, New York developed a gambling machine in that was a precursor to the modern slot machine.
It contained five drums holding a total of 50 card faces and was based on poker. The machine proved extremely popular, and soon many bars in the city had one or more of them.
Players would insert a nickel and pull a lever, which would spin the drums and the cards that they held, the player hoping for a good poker hand.
There was no direct payout mechanism, so a pair of kings might get the player a free beer, whereas a royal flush could pay out cigars or drinks; the prizes were wholly dependent upon what the establishment would offer.
To improve the odds for the house, two cards were typically removed from the deck , the ten of spades and the jack of hearts , doubling the odds against winning a royal flush.
The drums could also be rearranged to further reduce a player's chance of winning. Because of the vast number of possible wins in the original poker-based game, it proved practically impossible to make a machine capable of awarding an automatic payout for all possible winning combinations.
At some time between and ,  Charles Fey of San Francisco, California devised a much simpler automatic mechanism  with three spinning reels containing a total of five symbols: horseshoes, diamonds, spades, hearts and a Liberty Bell ; the bell gave the machine its name.
By replacing ten cards with five symbols and using three reels instead of five drums, the complexity of reading a win was considerably reduced, allowing Fey to design an effective automatic payout mechanism.
Liberty Bell was a huge success and spawned a thriving mechanical gaming device industry. After a few years, the devices were banned in California, but Fey still could not keep up with demand for them from elsewhere.
The Liberty Bell machine was so popular that it was copied by many slot-machine manufacturers. The first of these, also called the "Liberty Bell", was produced by the manufacturer Herbert Mills in By , many "bell" machines had been installed in most cigar stores, saloons, bowling alleys, brothels and barber shops.
The first Liberty Bell machines produced by Mills used the same symbols on the reels as did Charles Fey's original. Soon afterward, another version was produced with patriotic symbols, such as flags and wreaths, on the wheels.
Later, a similar machine called the Operator's Bell was produced that included the option of adding a gum -vending attachment.
As the gum offered was fruit-flavored, fruit symbols were placed on the reels: lemons, cherries, oranges and plums.
A bell was retained, and a picture of a stick of Bell-Fruit Gum, the origin of the bar symbol, was also present.
This set of symbols proved highly popular and was used by other companies that began to make their own slot machines: Caille, Watling, Jennings and Pace.
A commonly used technique to avoid gambling laws in a number of states was to award food prizes. For this reason, a number of gumball and other vending machines were regarded with mistrust by the courts.
The two Iowa cases of State v. Ellis  and State v. Striggles  are both used in criminal law classes to illustrate the concept of reliance upon authority as it relates to the axiomatic ignorantia juris non excusat "ignorance of the law is no excuse".
Despite the display of the result of the next use on the machine, the courts ruled that "[t]he machine appealed to the player's propensity to gamble, and that is [a] vice.
In , Bally developed the first fully electromechanical slot machine called Money Honey although earlier machines such as Bally's High Hand draw-poker machine had exhibited the basics of electromechanical construction as early as Its electromechanical workings made Money Honey the first slot machine with a bottomless hopper and automatic payout of up to coins without the help of an attendant.
The prototype was mounted in a full-size, show-ready slot-machine cabinet. The first production units went on trial at the Las Vegas Hilton Hotel.
After some modifications to defeat cheating attempts, the video slot machine was approved by the Nevada State Gaming Commission and eventually found popularity on the Las Vegas Strip and in downtown casinos.
Fortune Coin Co. Depending on the machine, the player can insert cash or, in " ticket-in, ticket-out " machines, a paper ticket with a barcode , into a designated slot on the machine.
The machine is then activated by means of a lever or button either physical or on a touchscreen , which activates reels that spin and stop to rearrange the symbols.
If a player matches a winning combination of symbols, the player earns credits based on the paytable.
Symbols vary depending on the theme of the machine. Classic symbols include objects such as fruits, bells, and stylized lucky sevens. Most slot games have a theme, such as a specific aesthetic , location, or character.
Symbols and other bonus features of the game are typically aligned with the theme. Some themes are licensed from popular media franchises , including films, television series including game shows such as Wheel of Fortune , entertainers, and musicians.
Multi-line slot machines have become more popular since the s. These machines have more than one payline, meaning that visible symbols that are not aligned on the main horizontal may be considered as winning combinations.
Traditional three-reel slot machines commonly have one, three, or five paylines while video slot machines may have 9, 15, 25, or as many as different paylines.
Most accept variable numbers of credits to play, with 1 to 15 credits per line being typical. The higher the amount bet, the higher the payout will be if the player wins.
One of the main differences between video slot machines and reel machines is in the way payouts are calculated.
With reel machines, the only way to win the maximum jackpot is to play the maximum number of coins usually three, sometimes four or even five coins per spin.
With video machines, the fixed payout values are multiplied by the number of coins per line that is being bet. In other words: on a reel machine, the odds are more favorable if the gambler plays with the maximum number of coins available.
Multi-way games may be configured to allow players to bet by-reel: for example, on a game with a 3x5 pattern often referred to as a way game , playing one reel allows all three symbols in the first reel to potentially pay, but only the center row pays on the remaining reels often designated by darkening the unused portions of the reels.
Other multi-way games use a 4x5 or 5x5 pattern, where there are up to five symbols in each reel, allowing for up to 1, and 3, ways to win respectively.
A variation involves patterns where symbols pay adjacent to one another. Most of these games have a hexagonal reel formation, and much like multi-way games, any patterns not played are darkened out of use.
The latter are typically known as "high limit" machines, and machines configured to allow for such wagers are often located in dedicated areas which may have a separate team of attendants to cater to the needs of those who play there.
The machine automatically calculates the number of credits the player receives in exchange for the cash inserted. Newer machines often allow players to choose from a selection of denominations on a splash screen or menu.
A bonus is a special feature of the particular game theme, which is activated when certain symbols appear in a winning combination.
Bonuses and the number of bonus features vary depending upon the game. In other bonus rounds, the player is presented with several items on a screen from which to choose.
As the player chooses items, a number of credits is revealed and awarded. Some bonuses use a mechanical device, such as a spinning wheel, that works in conjunction with the bonus to display the amount won.
A candle is a light on top of the slot machine. It flashes to alert the operator that change is needed, hand pay is requested or a potential problem with the machine.
It can be lit by the player by pressing the "service" or "help" button. A coin hopper is a container where the coins that are immediately available for payouts are held.
When a certain preset coin capacity is reached, a coin diverter automatically redirects, or "drops", excess coins into a "drop bucket" or "drop box".
Unused coin hoppers can still be found even on games that exclusively employ Ticket-In, Ticket-Out technology, as a vestige.
The credit meter is a display of the amount of money or number of credits on the machine. On mechanical slot machines, this is usually a seven-segment display , but video slot machines typically use stylized text that suits the game's theme and user interface.
The drop bucket or drop box is a container located in a slot machine's base where excess coins are diverted from the hopper. Typically, a drop bucket is used for low-denomination slot machines and a drop box is used for high-denomination slot machines.
A drop box contains a hinged lid with one or more locks whereas a drop bucket does not contain a lid. The contents of drop buckets and drop boxes are collected and counted by the casino on a scheduled basis.
Free spins are a common form of bonus, where a series of spins are automatically played at no charge at the player's current wager.
Free spins are usually triggered via a scatter of at least three designated symbols with the number of spins dependent on the number of symbols that land.
Some games allow the free spins bonus to "retrigger", which adds additional spins on top of those already awarded. There is no theoretical limit to the number of free spins obtainable.
Some games may have other features that can also trigger over the course of free spins. A hand pay refers to a payout made by an attendant or at an exchange point "cage" , rather than by the slot machine itself.
A hand pay occurs when the amount of the payout exceeds the maximum amount that was preset by the slot machine's operator.
Usually, the maximum amount is set at the level where the operator must begin to deduct taxes. A hand pay could also be necessary as a result of a short pay.
Hopper fill slip is a document used to record the replenishment of the coin in the coin hopper after it becomes depleted as a result of making payouts to players.
The slip indicates the amount of coin placed into the hoppers, as well as the signatures of the employees involved in the transaction, the slot machine number and the location and the date.
MEAL book M achine e ntry a uthorization l og is a log of the employee's entries into the machine. Low-level or slant-top slot machines include a stool so the player may sit down.
Stand-up or upright slot machines are played while standing. Optimal play is a payback percentage based on a gambler using the optimal strategy in a skill-based slot machine game.
Payline is a line that crosses through one symbol on each reel, along which a winning combination is evaluated.
Classic spinning reel machines usually have up to nine paylines, while video slot machines may have as many as one hundred.
Paylines could be of various shapes horizontal, vertical, oblique, triangular, zigzag, etc. Persistent state refers to passive features on some slot machines, some of which able to trigger bonus payouts or other special features if certain conditions are met over time by players on that machine.
Roll-up is the process of dramatizing a win by playing sounds while the meters count up to the amount that has been won.
Short pay refers to a partial payout made by a slot machine, which is less than the amount due to the player. This occurs if the coin hopper has been depleted as a result of making earlier payouts to players.
The remaining amount due to the player is either paid as a hand pay or an attendant will come and refill the machine. A scatter is a pay combination based on occurrences of a designated symbol landing anywhere on the reels, rather than falling in sequence on the same payline.
A scatter pay usually requires a minimum of three symbols to land, and the machine may offer increased prizes or jackpots depending on the number that land.
Scatters are frequently used to trigger bonus games, such as free spins with the number of spins multiplying based on the number of scatter symbols that land.
The scatter symbol usually cannot be matched using wilds, and some games may require the scatter symbols to appear on consecutive reels in order to pay.
On some multiway games, scatter symbols still pay in unused areas. Taste is a reference to the small amount often paid out to keep a player seated and continuously betting.
Only rarely will machines fail to pay even the minimum out over the course of several pulls. Tilt is a term derived from electromechanical slot machines' " tilt switches ", which would make or break a circuit when they were tilted or otherwise tampered with that triggered an alarm.
While modern machines no longer have tilt switches, any kind of technical fault door switch in the wrong state, reel motor failure, out of paper, etc.
A theoretical hold worksheet is a document provided by the manufacturer for every slot machine that indicates the theoretical percentage the machine should hold based on the amount paid in.
The worksheet also indicates the reel strip settings, number of coins that may be played, the payout schedule, the number of reels and other information descriptive of the particular type of slot machine.
Volatility or variance refers to the measure of risk associated with playing a slot machine. A low-volatility slot machine has regular but smaller wins, while a high-variance slot machine has fewer but bigger wins.
Weight count is an American term referring to the total value of coins or tokens removed from a slot machine's drop bucket or drop box for counting by the casino's hard count team through the use of a weigh scale.
Wild symbols substitute for most other symbols in the game similarly to a joker card , usually excluding scatter and jackpot symbols or offering a lower prize on non-natural combinations that include wilds.
How jokers behave are dependent on the specific game and whether the player is in a bonus or free games mode. Sometimes wild symbols may only appear on certain reels, or have a chance to "stack" across the entire reel.
Each machine has a table that lists the number of credits the player will receive if the symbols listed on the pay table line up on the pay line of the machine.
Some symbols are wild and can represent many, or all, of the other symbols to complete a winning line. Especially on older machines, the pay table is listed on the face of the machine, usually above and below the area containing the wheels.
On video slot machines, they are usually contained within a help menu, along with information on other features. Historically, all slot machines used revolving mechanical reels to display and determine results.
Although the original slot machine used five reels, simpler, and therefore more reliable, three reel machines quickly became the standard.
This limited the manufacturer's ability to offer large jackpots since even the rarest event had a likelihood of 0. Although the number of symbols eventually increased to about 22, allowing 10, combinations,  this still limited jackpot sizes as well as the number of possible outcomes.
In the s, however, slot machine manufacturers incorporated electronics into their products and programmed them to weight particular symbols.
Thus the odds of losing symbols appearing on the payline became disproportionate to their actual frequency on the physical reel.
A symbol would only appear once on the reel displayed to the player, but could, in fact, occupy several stops on the multiple reel. In Inge Telnaes received a patent for a device titled, "Electronic Gaming Device Utilizing a Random Number Generator for Selecting the Reel Stop Positions" US Patent ,  which states: "It is important to make a machine that is perceived to present greater chances of payoff than it actually has within the legal limitations that games of chance must operate.
With microprocessors now ubiquitous, the computers inside modern slot machines allow manufacturers to assign a different probability to every symbol on every reel.
To the player it might appear that a winning symbol was "so close", whereas in fact the probability is much lower.
In the s in the U. These used a number of features to ensure the payout was controlled within the limits of the gambling legislation. As a coin was inserted into the machine, it could go either directly into the cashbox for the benefit of the owner or into a channel that formed the payout reservoir, with the microprocessor monitoring the number of coins in this channel.